gastroesophageal reflux disease). Statistical Analysis Primary Analysis The study utilized standard analytic techniques for evaluating case-control studies and conditional logistic regression.17, 19C21 All definitions and modeling strategies were planned a priori (i.e. 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.21C1.39) or H2RAs (OR=1.18, 95% CI=1.08C1.29). The risk was reduced after medication discontinuation (OR=1.30, 95% CI 1.21C1.41 for current PPI users vs. OR=1.09, 95% CI 0.64C1.85 for patients who received their last prescription was 3C5 years ago). Higher dosages (but not increasing cumulative durations) were associated with increased risk (e.g. 1.5 pills/day OR=1.41, 95% CI 1.21C1.64; 0.74 pills/day OR=1.12, 95% CI 0.94C1.33). Excess fracture risk for PPI Prinaberel use was only present among persons with at least one other fracture risk factor. CONCLUSION Use of drugs that inhibit gastric acid is associated with an increased risk of hip fracture; however, this association was only found among persons with at least one other risk factor for hip fracture. Acid inhibition might therefore be associated with fracture risk in persons already at risk for osteoporosis, although other confounding cannot be excluded. strong class=”kwd-title” Keywords: calcium, bone, medication, gastroesophageal reflux Hip fractures are a major cause of morbidity and mortality; over 329,000 persons are hospitalized annually with hip fractures in the United States.1 The resultant disease burden is substantial, with a frequent need for invasive interventions (e.g. over 234,000 hip replacement surgeries in 2004 alone), prolonged rehabilitation, and a mortality rate of 5C10% within the first month.2 Thus, identifying modifiable risk factors for Prinaberel hip fractures would be of substantial benefit to the public health.3 Acid inhibitors, which are among the most commonly used pharmaceuticals in the United States, may theoretically increase or decrease the risk of hip fractures.4 Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) could diminish bone density by decreasing calcium absorption5 or by inducing hyperparathyroidism through hypergastrinemia.6, 7 Alternatively, acid inhibitors may modify acid-related enzymes in bones that regulate bone remodeling, which could decrease (or increase) fracture risk.4, 8, 9 Few human studies of the association between acid inhibition and hip fractures exist, the results are discordant (even between three studies within the same European data set)10C12 and no large or long-term studies have been published from the United States. In addition, in prior studies, increased fracture risk was also associated with medications not clearly associated with osteoporosis, such as anti-cholesterol medications, aspirin, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), raising the possibility of confounding.10, 13 Thus, we performed a nested case-control study of the association between prescriptions for acid-suppressing medications (for up to 10 years) and the risk of hip fracture within a large, community-based population. We also evaluated whether fracture risk was generally associated with other commonly used medications, which would suggest confounding. METHODS Study Population We conducted a case-control study among the approximately 3.3 million members of the Kaiser Permanente, MRM2 Northern California (KPNC) integrated health care delivery system which provides comprehensive inpatient and outpatient services. The KPNC membership demographics closely approximate the regions underlying census demographics. 14 Prescription drug benefits are utilized by 90% of members; pharmacy databases electronically record all dispensed prescriptions (including amount, directions for use, calculated days supply, and refills); their performance is validated for both as needed and daily medications.15, 16 Additional databases include information on membership, medical diagnoses assigned by the provider for each outpatient visit, hospitalization diagnoses, and procedures performed. Outpatient diagnoses are assigned by clinicians and are not linked with provider compensation. The analyses were approved by the institutional review board. Case Definition Cases were KPNC members who met the following criteria: an incident diagnosis of a hip fracture between January, 1995 and September, 2007, using International Classification of Disease, 9th revision (ICD-9) codes 820.0 -821.20 (hip or femur fractures, excluding lower femoral condyle); at least 18 years of age at the index date; no prior hip/femur fracture diagnosis; and at least two years of membership prior to the index date. The index day was the fracture day. We evaluated the Prinaberel validity of electronic coding for hip fracture using a manual record review of 60 randomly selected individuals from 1998C2007; we recognized data supporting a fracture analysis in 90% of individuals, indicating a high level of coding validity. Control Definition For each case, up to four matched controls (if available) were randomly selected from your KPNC regular membership using incidence denseness sampling. With this method, each control was chosen from among all eligible adult users who lacked a analysis of a hip fracture in the index day of the matched case and who experienced at least two years of membership prior to the index day.17 Controls were matched by sex, 12 months of birth (3-year age groups),.
gastroesophageal reflux disease)