Moreover, antibodies recognizing comparable epitopes to the 12 representative mAbs existed in human sera after HEV vaccination, suggesting that all 6 of the antigenic sites recognized by the 12 representative mAbs participated in the formation of strong immune dominant epitopes around the E2s domain name. into 6 impartial groups, suggesting the presence of at least 6 epitopes. Twelve representative mAbs covering the six groups were selected as a tool box to further map functional antigenic sites around the E2s domain. By combining functional and location information of the 12 representative mAbs, this study provided a complete picture of potential neutralizing epitope regions and immune-dominant determinants on E2s domain name. One epitope region is located on top of the E2s domain name close to the monomer interface; the other is located around the monomer side of the E2s dimer round the groove zone. Besides, two non-neutralizing epitopes were also recognized on E2s domain name that did not stimulate neutralizing antibodies. Our results help further the understanding of protective mechanisms induced by the HEV vaccine. Furthermore, the tool box with 12 representative mAbs will be useful for studying the HEV contamination process. ER2566 strain (Invitrogen). The transformant was cultured in LB medium at 37 C for 4 h and then incubated for an additional 4 h in the presence of 0.2 mm isopropyl thio–d-galactoside. The cells were lysed by sonication in the presence of 2% Triton X-100. The sonicate was allowed to stand at 4 C for 30 min and then centrifuged at 12,000 rpm for 10 min. Then, the precipitant was washed once with 0.2% Triton X-100 and twice with buffer I (200 mm Tris-HCl, pH 8.5, 5 mm EDTA, and 100 mm NaCl). Each wash was followed by centrifugation at 12,000 rpm for 10 min. The pellet was resuspended in 4 m urea buffer (200 mm Tris-HCl, Rabbit Polyclonal to DNAI2 pH 8.5, 5 mm EDTA, 100 mm NaCl, and 4 m urea), allowed to stand for 30 min at room temperature, and centrifuged at 12,000 rpm for 10 min. The supernatant was dialyzed against PBS (pH 7.4) overnight and centrifuged at 12,000 rpm for 10 min. Target proteins (p239 and mutants) were present in the supernatants. The proteins were then purified and characterized according to methods previously explained (36, 41). Antibodies mAbs were raised against p239 antigens using a standard murine mAb preparation protocol (37). Indirect ELISA An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect the reactivity of HEV antibodies, including mAbs and sera obtained from mice or humans. Briefly, microwell plates were coated at 37 C for 3 h with 100 l of each of the purified recombinant antigens at a concentration of 1 1 g/ml in carbonate-bicarbonate buffer (pH 9.6). The wells were blocked with 0.5% (w/v) casein in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 37 C for 2 h, washed, and dried. Antibodies diluted in PBS were added to the plates and incubated at 37 C for 30 min. After 5 rinses, HRP-conjugated anti-mouse or anti-human IgG Fab antibodies diluted 5000-fold in enzyme dilution buffer were added to DIPQUO detect the bound antibodies. After incubation at 37 C for 30 min, the plates were washed as explained above, and 100 l of tetramethylbenzidine substrate answer was added to the wells. The reaction was stopped DIPQUO by adding 50 l of 2 m H2SO4 after incubation at 37 C for 15 min, and the absorbance was measured at 450 nm with a reference wavelength of 620 nm. Western Blot The recombinant p239 proteins with or without boiling were loaded onto SDS-PAGE gel, respectively, and subsequently electroblotted onto nitrocellulose membrane (Whatman). The blot were blocked and reacted with DIPQUO mAbs according to methods previously explained (37). Immune Capture Assay The plates were coated with 300 l of mAbs (0.3 g/ml) diluted in 20 mm phosphate buffer (16.2 mm Na2HPO4, 3.8 mm NaH2PO4, pH 7.4) at 37 C for 2 h. Then, the plates were washed once with PBST (PBS with 0.05% Tween 20). The plates were subsequently incubated with 350 l of blocking reagent (PBS made DIPQUO up of 2% BSA) at 37 C for 2 h and washed. A total of 200 l of HEV suspension was added to the antibody-coated wells and incubated at 37 C for 2 h. The wells were rinsed five occasions. Then, 200 l of TRIzol was added into each well and incubated at 4 C for 10 min. HEV RNA was extracted, and the viral RNA titers captured DIPQUO by the mAbs were determined with a real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay. Real-time PCR HEV RNA was purified from 50 l of sample.
Moreover, antibodies recognizing comparable epitopes to the 12 representative mAbs existed in human sera after HEV vaccination, suggesting that all 6 of the antigenic sites recognized by the 12 representative mAbs participated in the formation of strong immune dominant epitopes around the E2s domain name